War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression
(1931-1945)
Civil War and Founding of the PRC
(1945-1949)
Tales of Hong Kong
(1840-1949)
Tales of Macao
(1840-1949)

Scramble for Concessions (1896-1899)

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The Scramble for Concessions: an Overview

From 1840 onwards, China’s sovereignty was continuously damaged by successive imperialist invasions. Under the scramble for concessions in the late 19th century, the imperialist powers raced to lease Chinese harbours and ports, and scrambled for new territories and spheres of influence. Although China finally escaped the fate of a total partition, it nevertheless became a semi-colony.

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(1) Land Cessions, War Indemnities, and Establishment of Foreign Concessions

Starting from the First Opium War, China was beset by foreign invasions. Successive defeats forced it to cede land, pay indemnities, and establish foreign concessions. However, these only empowered the imperialist powers to continue with their exploitation of the country.

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(2) The Loss of National Sovereignty and Security

Under the imperialist powers’ coercion, China surrendered its judicial jurisdiction, tariff autonomy, and even offered the most-favoured-nation treatment to them. Its national security was also heavily undermined.

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(3) Foreign Control over China’s Customs and Finances

As the Qing dynasty tottered to its end, foreigners gripped on the management of China’s customs service; likewise, they dominated the country’s financial sector.

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(4) The Influx of Foreign Capital into the Semi-colonial China

During the late Qing era, the imperialist powers increased their capital export efforts in China by establishing factories, opening mines, loaning, and building railways to tighten their grip on the Chinese economy.

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(5) The Scramble for Naval Leaseholds and Spheres of Influence

By the late 19th century, the imperialist powers raced to obtain coastal leases and demarcate their respective spheres of influence in China, bringing the country to the verge of partition.

See More

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(6) The Verge of Partition and the Open Door Policy

Just as China was about to be dismembered, the United States proposed the Open Door Policy that called upon all imperialist powers within their spheres of influence to share privileges on an equal basis. Considering the rivalries among themselves and to safeguard their own interests, the powers acceded to these terms. Thus, China narrowly escaped the fate of partition.

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The Scramble for Concessions: an Overview

From 1840 onwards, China’s sovereignty was continuously damaged by successive imperialist invasions. Under the scramble for concessions in the late 19th century, the imperialist powers raced to lease Chinese harbours and ports, and scrambled for new territories and spheres of influence. Although China finally escaped the fate of a total partition, it nevertheless became a semi-colony.

The Scramble for Concessions: an Overview

From 1840 onwards, China’s sovereignty was continuously damaged by successive imperialist invasions. Under the scramble for concessions in the late 19th century, the imperialist powers raced to lease Chinese harbours and ports, and scrambled for new territories and spheres of influence. Although China finally escaped the fate of a total partition, it nevertheless became a semi-colony.

(1) Land Cessions, War Indemnities, and Establishment of Foreign Concessions

Starting from the First Opium War, China was beset by foreign invasions. Successive defeats forced it to cede land, pay indemnities, and establish foreign concessions. However, these only empowered the imperialist powers to continue with their exploitation of the country.

(2) The Loss of National Sovereignty and Security

Under the imperialist powers’ coercion, China surrendered its judicial jurisdiction, tariff autonomy, and even offered the most-favoured-nation treatment to them. Its national security was also heavily undermined.

(3) Foreign Control over China’s Customs and Finances

As the Qing dynasty tottered to its end, foreigners gripped on the management of China’s customs service; likewise, they dominated the country’s financial sector.

(4) The Influx of Foreign Capital into the Semi-colonial China

During the late Qing era, the imperialist powers increased their capital export efforts in China by establishing factories, opening mines, loaning, and building railways to tighten their grip on the Chinese economy.

(5) The Scramble for Naval Leaseholds and Spheres of Influence

By the late 19th century, the imperialist powers raced to obtain coastal leases and demarcate their respective spheres of influence in China, bringing the country to the verge of partition.

(6) The Verge of Partition and the Open Door Policy

Just as China was about to be dismembered, the United States proposed the Open Door Policy that called upon all imperialist powers within their spheres of influence to share privileges on an equal basis. Considering the rivalries among themselves and to safeguard their own interests, the powers acceded to these terms. Thus, China narrowly escaped the fate of partition.