Nanjing Decade (1928-1937)

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The Nanjing Decade: an Overview

From the end of the Northern Expedition in 1928 to the outbreak of the total war of resistance against Japanese aggression in 1937, China had a short period of construction under the rule of the Nanjing Nationalist Government. During this period, political, economic, cultural, educational, military, and diplomatic achievements were made. However, the war between the Central Government and the new warlords as well as the fierce fights between the Kuomintang of China and the Chinese Communist Party plunged China into serious social turmoil and devastation of lives.

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(1) Golden Decade of the Nanjing Government

Under the rule of the Nanjing Nationalist Government from 1928 to 1937, China had a rare and short period of construction since the establishment of the Republic of China. Progress in several aspects was made.

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(2) New Warlords and Their Civil Wars after the Northern Expedition

After the Northern Expedition, conflicts between the Nanjing Nationalist Government and the new warlords continued. Some large-scale wars even broke out.

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(3) The Chinese Communist Party Launched Armed Struggles

The Kuomintang of China (KMT) launched the “Party Purge” to exterminate communist members since April 1927 and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) thus launched armed struggles in both the cities and rural areas. This marked the beginning of the KMT-CCP long-term confrontation.

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(4) The Establishment of the Jinggang Mountain Base and the Central Soviet Zone

In 1928, Mao Zedong, Zhu De, and others established a revolutionary base in Jinggang Mountain, Jiangxi Province. With the establishment of the Provisional Central Government of the Chinese Soviet Republic in Ruijin, Jiangxi, in 1931, the Chinese Communist Party’s central revolutionary base was officially formed.

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(5) The KMT’s Five Campaigns of Encirclement and Extermination against the CCP

From 1930 to 1934, the Kuomintang of China (KMT) launched five campaigns of encirclement and extermination against the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) base in Jiangxi. The CCP coped with the first four attempts with guerrilla warfare. In the fifth attempt, both the KMT and the CCP changed their tactics, leading to a completely different result.

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(6) The Long March of the CCP Red Army and the Establishment of the Northern Shaanxi Base

Due to the failure of the fifth anti-encirclement and anti-extermination campaign, the Red Army of the Chinese Communist Party was forced to start the Long March in October 1934. After going through hardships and dangers, it finally gained a foothold in northern Shaanxi.

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The Nanjing Decade: an Overview

From the end of the Northern Expedition in 1928 to the outbreak of the total war of resistance against Japanese aggression in 1937, China had a short period of construction under the rule of the Nanjing Nationalist Government. During this period, political, economic, cultural, educational, military, and diplomatic achievements were made. However, the war between the Central Government and the new warlords as well as the fierce fights between the Kuomintang of China and the Chinese Communist Party plunged China into serious social turmoil and devastation of lives.

The Nanjing Decade: an Overview

From the end of the Northern Expedition in 1928 to the outbreak of the total war of resistance against Japanese aggression in 1937, China had a short period of construction under the rule of the Nanjing Nationalist Government. During this period, political, economic, cultural, educational, military, and diplomatic achievements were made. However, the war between the Central Government and the new warlords as well as the fierce fights between the Kuomintang of China and the Chinese Communist Party plunged China into serious social turmoil and devastation of lives.

(1) Golden Decade of the Nanjing Government

Under the rule of the Nanjing Nationalist Government from 1928 to 1937, China had a rare and short period of construction since the establishment of the Republic of China. Progress in several aspects was made.

(2) New Warlords and Their Civil Wars after the Northern Expedition

After the Northern Expedition, conflicts between the Nanjing Nationalist Government and the new warlords continued. Some large-scale wars even broke out.

(3) The Chinese Communist Party Launched Armed Struggles

The Kuomintang of China (KMT) launched the “Party Purge” to exterminate communist members since April 1927 and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) thus launched armed struggles in both the cities and rural areas. This marked the beginning of the KMT-CCP long-term confrontation.

(4) The Establishment of the Jinggang Mountain Base and the Central Soviet Zone

In 1928, Mao Zedong, Zhu De, and others established a revolutionary base in Jinggang Mountain, Jiangxi Province. With the establishment of the Provisional Central Government of the Chinese Soviet Republic in Ruijin, Jiangxi, in 1931, the Chinese Communist Party’s central revolutionary base was officially formed.

(5) The KMT’s Five Campaigns of Encirclement and Extermination against the CCP

From 1930 to 1934, the Kuomintang of China (KMT) launched five campaigns of encirclement and extermination against the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) base in Jiangxi. The CCP coped with the first four attempts with guerrilla warfare. In the fifth attempt, both the KMT and the CCP changed their tactics, leading to a completely different result.

(6) The Long March of the CCP Red Army and the Establishment of the Northern Shaanxi Base

Due to the failure of the fifth anti-encirclement and anti-extermination campaign, the Red Army of the Chinese Communist Party was forced to start the Long March in October 1934. After going through hardships and dangers, it finally gained a foothold in northern Shaanxi.