The revolutionaries commenced their work in Macao (Macau) and the Guangdong (廣東) area by setting up the Macao branch of the United League in 1905. To disseminate revolutionary thoughts and ideals, the Macao branch established Pui Kei Primary and Secondary School in Macao. Some of its students even joined revolutionary organisations and devoted themselves to the revolution later. Meanwhile, the Macao branch organised opera performances and set up publishing houses to spread revolutionary thoughts. Its efforts finally paid off when people in Macao increasingly supported the revolution. Thousands of people responded to the braid-cutting campaign in 1911. After the successful Wuchang Uprising (武昌起義) in 1911, the Macao branch then organised the Xiangshan Uprising (香山起義) and instigated the New Army stationed at Qianshan (前山) to capture Shiqi (石岐). Macao entered a new era when the 1911 Revolution succeeded.
The “Today’s Editorial” in Ching-Hai Tsung-Pao (《鏡海叢報》) on 6 November 1895 introduced Sun Yat-sen (孫中山) and the recruitment article from the Association of Agricultural Science Societies, which in fact was the Revive China Society.
The rich merchant Lou I Ioc (盧怡若), Lou Kau’s (盧九) son, participated in founding the Macao branch of the United League in 1905. (Provided by Kiang Wu Hospital Charitable Association, cited from “Macau Memory”, Macao Foundation)
Rua da Praia Grande in the early 20th century. The Macao branch of the United League was set up at no.41 of the street in 1905.
Sun Yat-sen entrusted Feng Ziyou (馮自由) and Li Zizhong (李自重) to be the leaders of the United Leagues in branches including Hong Kong, Guangzhou (廣州), and Macao in 1905. This is Sun’s letter of attorney.
The Hou Keng Publishing House at Rua de Pedro Nolasco da Silva was one of the activity sites of the Macao branch of the United League.
The constitution of Pui Kei Primary and Secondary School in 1908. Established by the Macao branch of the United League, the school aimed at disseminating revolutionary thoughts to students. (Collected by Yao Hongguang, provided by the Chinese Educators’ Association of Macau, cited from “Macau Memory”, Macao Foundation)
A picture depicting the Youtianying (優天影) Cantonese Opera Troupe’s performance. The troupe grew out of the Youtian Society founded in Macao in 1907 by patriots from Hong Kong and Macao, including Huang Luyi (黃魯逸) and Lu Suohun (盧梭魂). The Youtian Society was forced to disband for promoting revolution. In 1908, it was re-established and performed in Pengyuan (彭園) in Liwan (荔灣), Guangzhou, as the Youtianying Opera Troupe. However, it was banned and dissolved later again by the Qing court.
Cheng Peng Theatre, the first Chinese theatre in Macao. It was the site of the 1911 braid-cutting campaign when thousands of Chinese men cut their braids to show their determination to overthrow the Qing court.
Mo Jipeng (莫紀彭) and his poems. After the successful 1911 Wuchang Uprising, the the Macao branch of the United League launched the Xiangshan Uprising to recover places including Xiangshan and Shiqi. Mo was one of its organisers.
Gao Jianfu and his calligraphy work and painting. A United League member and the deputy captain of the Chinese Assassination Corps, Gao once planned the assassination against the Qing spies and settled in Macao in his later years. He was also one of the founders of the Lingnan School (嶺南畫派).
Photo courtesy of Mr. Alex Lou, Vice Chairman of The Heritage Society (pictures 1, 3, 5, and 8), Macao Foundation (pictures 2, 6), Fotoe (pictures 4, 7, 9, and 10).